Educational Site http://www.prettysmile.xyz Inventions ideas, health & diseases, general knowledge, and entertainment are the main topics of this site. Hope, you'll be enjoying by reading these topics. Wed, 13 Dec 2017 17:23:53 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.9.1 http://www.prettysmile.xyz/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/cropped-Favicon-of-Educational-Site-32x32.png Educational Site http://www.prettysmile.xyz 32 32 The secret things of the animal senses and communications. [Part-2] http://www.prettysmile.xyz/animal-senses/ http://www.prettysmile.xyz/animal-senses/#respond Wed, 13 Dec 2017 17:23:53 +0000 http://www.prettysmile.xyz/?p=952 Animal Senses and Language: Animal senses: Human beings have five senses, touch, taste, smell, hearing, and sight. Many animal senses have the same, although in some, such as dogs, one or more senses. For example, smell and hearing, are much better developed than they are in human beings. Dogs can smell a wider range of …

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Animal Senses and Language:

Animal senses: Human beings have five senses, touch, taste, smell, hearing, and sight. Many animal senses have the same, although in some, such as dogs, one or more senses. For example, smell and hearing, are much better developed than they are in human beings. Dogs can smell a wider range of scents and can hear both higher and fainter sounds than we can.

Some animals that have no eyes can still tell the difference between light and darkness, while others react to chemicals, which is something like smelling and tasting. However, there are probably senses that we know nothing about, for otherwise, it is very hard to explain how birds, animals, and even insects and fish manage to travel long distances without losing their way. Some experts have suggested that these creatures can use the Earth’s magnetic field to keep their direction.

Animal Senses and Language
Animal Senses and Language

Animal Language: Human beings have the wonderful gift of speech. But many of the larger animals can show that they are hungry or frightened or pleased by making sounds that we have learned to recognize, such as a roar, a squeal or a purr. People also still use animal-like sounds when they laugh, groan, cry and sigh.

Some animals can make more complex and meaningful sounds than these simple noises. For instance, birdsong is much more elaborate, for the song of a male bird may be telling other males to keep away, while at the same time inviting a female to come closer. Birds have other calls which warn of danger or which help to keep the flock together. Of course, a parrot or a budgerigar does not understand what it is saying when it imitates the human voice.

Animals also use movements or gestures to convey a message. A rabbit will thump the ground loudly with one hind leg when it sees or smells danger; a dog paws its master when it wants food or exercise. People, too, still use gestures; they wave goodbye and point to things, for example. Facial expressions also play a part in human communication; for instance, we smile to show we are pleased.

 

How Animals Move

With a few ‘exceptions, such as the adult sponge, all animals can move about. Many parasites have no need to move, for they are picked up by the animals they live on and then just stay there. The starfish, sea anemones, and most of the shellfish have a slow creeping motion. A few animals, like the squid, get along by a sort of jet propulsion, squirting water out behind them. Jellyfish are mostly carried about by the sea, but they can also swim.

Of course, the best swimmers are the fish, although most of them move their bodies and tails more than their fins. One of the fastest is the swordfish which is said to travel at speeds up to 95 kilometers (60 miles) an hour, although some experts credit it with only 65 kilometers (40 miles) an hour. Whales and seals, which are not fish but mammals, can also swim well.

How Animals Move
How Animals Move

Birds and bats are the only higher animals that really fly, although some other mammals, as well as a few of the reptiles, amphibians, and fish, have learned to glide. Some of the birds can swim and dive also. The fastest birds on the wing are said to be the peregrine falcon and the spine-tailed swift, both of which may have reached 320 kilometers (200 miles) an hour. Racing pigeons have averaged 150 kilometers (93 miles) an hour for 130 kilometers (80 miles).

Many snakes and lizards are as much at home in the water as on land. Snakes cannot travel at much more than 8 kilometers (5 miles) an hour on land, but lizards move much faster. Frogs are splendid long-jumpers for their size, and some can jump 3 meters (10 feet). But the mammals are generally the most efficient animals on land. The fastest sprinter is reckoned to be the cheetah, which can travel at 70 kilometers (43 miles) an hour for about 450 meters (500 yards), or at 110 kilometers (70 miles) an hour for a very short distance.

 

Social Animals

Some animals, for example, the fox, lead a mainly independent existence; others, such as seabirds, only come together in large numbers when it is time to breed. Yet others, including birds, butterflies, and reindeer, eels, and crabs travel long distances together (migrate) at certain seasons. There are many animals, however, that are sociable all the year round, and these feed, sleep and breed in flocks, herds or shoals.

It is not easy to say whether animals that live alone are better off or not than those that live in groups. The songbird that has a territory of its own defends it against those of its own kind and other species, and in this way, it protects its young and makes sure they have enough food. Also, when animals are not crowded together, a disease which attacks one animal is not so likely to spread to all the others.

Social Animals
Social Animals

On the other hand, a colony or large group of animals can function most efficiently. One advantage of a colony is that the members can join together to attack an enemy, and often a group has some sort of leader who decides on the best thing to do.

      Termites have a wonderful organization in their nests in which each individual has his job to do. The termites have their kings and queens, their soldiers and their workers, but only the workers can make digestible food. And all the others depend on them for their daily bread.

      Bird and mammal behavior is just as interesting in its way. Have you ever seen a flock of waders wheeling and turning information over the water as if someone was giving them order? Other flocks, particularly geese, set sentries when they are feeding, to give warning when danger approaches. Some mammals, such as the prairie dog (Cynomys), also set sentries to give warning of danger.

ANIMAL BEHAVIOR:

In its broadest sense, the term animal behavior refers to everything an animal does during its life. This includes feeding, moving, courting, egg laying, migrating, and many other activities. Studying animal behavior helps us to understand how an animal copes with their surroundings and with other animals.

ANIMAL BEHAVIOR

Animal behavior can be divided into two main kinds. Many animals do things without “thinking”, often from the moment of birth; for example, a newborn lamb knows how to feed on its mother without being taught. This type of behavior is called instinctive, or innate, behavior and is passed on from one generation to the next. The second kind of behavior includes actions which do not come naturally. But need to be learned by watching or copying older animals. A good example of this type of behavior is when young lion cubs learn to hunt by watching their parents and by playing together.

 

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‘What is the sport of Fencing?’-Fencing sports http://www.prettysmile.xyz/fencing-sports/ http://www.prettysmile.xyz/fencing-sports/#comments Sat, 04 Nov 2017 01:46:39 +0000 http://www.prettysmile.xyz/?p=284 The roots of modern fencing sports can be traced to the historical traditions of swordsmanship was considered to be a great martial art and provided a high social status to the warrior. But the modern fencing is a friendly competitive duel and not meant for fighting battles as was the case in old days. It …

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The roots of modern fencing sports can be traced to the historical traditions of swordsmanship was considered to be a great martial art and provided a high social status to the warrior. But the modern fencing is a friendly competitive duel and not meant for fighting battles as was the case in old days.

It is now a sport involving the skillful use of swords for attack or defense according to the set rules and regulations. In France, it is called Escrime and in Italy Schoma. It has a long and fascinating history, and its roots can be traced to the traditions of chivalry. The sport has been a permanent feature of every Olympic Games ever since their revival in Athens in 1896. Today it is increasingly practiced throughout the world.

Fencing sports
Fencing sports

Fencing is divided into three major branches depending upon the weapons employed. The three different types of weapons used are foils, sabers, and epees. The fencer scores point by touching the opponent’s target area with the sword point and loses when touched the same way by the opponent.

Some of the main advantages of this sport are that it provides concentrated physical exercise in a short duration of time, independent of weather and without much expenditure. Fencing develops a coordination of mind and body. It is a game of skill, speed, and finesse in which brute strength doesn’t have much role to play. This game is suitable for both men and women. It is a complex and difficult art to master.

The fencing sports equipment is relatively inexpensive. This requires a fencing jacket, a mask, a glove, a foil or any other such weapon with trousers or fencing breeches, white stockings, and rubber-sole gym shoes or flat sole fencing shoes.

The fencer’s weapon consists of a blade and mounting. The stronger half of the blade, which is nearer to the guard, is called the forte and the remainder, the foible. The mounting consists of a guard, the form of which varies according to the weapon and within which there is often a small cushion to protect the fingers. It has a handle or grip with which the weapon is held and manipulated.

sport of Fencing
Weapons

 

Modern Fencing Sports:

The modern art of fencing is practiced with three weapons: foil, epee, and sabre. The foil is just over one meter long (1.1 meters) and weighs up to 500 grams. Its blade is rectangular, tapering, and flexible. And it has a blunt point called the button. Epee is of the same length as the foil but heavier up to 700 grams. Its blade is triangular and rigid. Sabre is of the same weight as the foil but a little shorter (.05 meters). The blade is V-shaped and narrow, rigid at the cutting edges but flexible on the flat edge.

The foil is the basic weapon with which the art of fencing is learned. However, later the fencer may prefer epee or saber. This is because the foil is the most easily manipulable weapon among the three and enables the fencer to carry out all fencing movements with it.

The target area on which a hit is valid varies with the weapon. In case of foil, it is restricted to the opponent’s trunk, back, and front excluding the head, arms, and legs. The hit must be made with the point of the foil only and is valid only if they land on the target.

 Foil is held and manipulated with the fingers only. Epee is also manipulated with the fingers like foil. Sabre is held somewhat differently than the other two weapons, but it is similarly manipulated by finger play. The blade is directed by the thumb and the first finger, but these movements are assisted by the little finger.

A bout between men at foil, epee or sabre is fenced for five hits (best of nine hits). However, in case of women foil, a bout is for four hits. The time limit for a bout is six minutes of actual fencing time for men and five minutes for women.

Judging a fencing competition requires a great experience because of the complexity and speed of movements and constant mobility of the competitors. The foil and epee competitions are judged by an electrical judging apparatus that registers the time of the hit. No electrical apparatus is used for judging sabre. This calls for two pairs of judges to judge the game. The hits are awarded according to the rules and conventions applicable to sabre fencing.

For watching Fence Sports: Click Here 

History of Horse Racing: Click Here for details

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Allergy Symptoms: Check Your Symptoms and Signs http://www.prettysmile.xyz/allergy-symptoms/ http://www.prettysmile.xyz/allergy-symptoms/#comments Tue, 03 Oct 2017 11:52:16 +0000 http://www.prettysmile.xyz/?p=518 Allergy: If some breaks out in a rash or is made to sneeze by such things as dust, animal fur, or pollen, then that person has an allergy. To have an allergy means to be affected by something which is harmless to most people. The substance causing the allergic reaction is called an allergen. People …

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Allergy:

If some breaks out in a rash or is made to sneeze by such things as dust, animal fur, or pollen, then that person has an allergy. To have an allergy means to be affected by something which is harmless to most people. The substance causing the allergic reaction is called an allergen. People can be allergic to all sorts of things, including certain foods.

It is not at all clear why some people have allergies while others do not. Many doctors and scientists think that heredity has a part in deciding who will be allergic, there are families in which grandparents, parents, and children are all allergic to the same substance. However, in many other cases of allergy, no other member of the family has been allergic. Doctors do know something about how the body behaves when in contact with the substance which starts the attack.

For example, suppose a child is allergic to chocolate. The first time he or she eats chocolate, it is digested in the stomach and intestines. The digested chocolate causes special cells in the tissues of the body to make a chemical called an antibody. The next time chocolate is eaten, its digestive products combine with the antibodies in the skin and lungs. This causes damage to the small blood vessels in the skin, allowing fluid to escape. As a result, little spots of fluid collect on the skin, appearing as hives (spots or blotches). The effects on the lungs may be a pouring out of thick mucus and the closing down of the bronchial tubes. This is asthma. During the attack, the child has great difficulty in breathing.

Antibiotics, in general, are among the body’s main defenses against infection. Only certain antibiotics cause harm in this way. When this special kind of antibody combines with the allergen (in this case, chocolate), a substance called histamine is released. The histamine then causes the allergic reaction. Certain drugs, called antihistamine drugs, can prevent the allergic reaction, though they cannot cure the allergy.

Doctors are now able to identify the substances (allergens) which cause allergies in particular people by using the scratch test. Scratches are made in a row along a person’s arm, and very small amount of material which could be the cause- such as pollen, house dust, and cat fur are placed in the scratches. If the skin around a certain scratch swells and reddens, this indicates that the patient is allergic to the substance contained in that particular scratch.

 

Common Allergy:

Below are four of the common allergies:

 Hay Fever:

This is the name given to an allergy that many people develop, usually in early summer. Symptoms include sneezing, running eyes, coughing and headaches. This allergy was first called hay fever since it was thought to be caused by pollen from hay fields. But it is now known that pollen produced by any plant can cause the allergy.

Hay Fever
Hay Fever

In cases of hay fever, protein (and pollen is a protein) affects certain muscles or the cells of the capillary (little blood-vessel) walls. These muscles or cells are exposed to air in the air tubes (or bronchi) of the lungs, nose, throat, and eyes, and are likely to come into contact with pollens from several different plants.

The best way to prevent hay fever is to keep away from the kind of plant or substance that causes it. However, if attacks occur, most patients can be cured or greatly helped by injections of pollen or protein extracts. Antihistamine drugs in pill form are a temporary relief, although not a cure.

Asthma:

The Greek word “asthma” was adopted for this allergy. It means “panting for breath”, which is what we all do after running or exercising hard. But the panting described by doctors as asthma comes in bouts, or “attacks”, lasting anything from a few minutes to an hour or two, and may even start when a person is sleeping. Instead of taking great gulps of air, like a runner, the asthmatic has to struggle for breath. Bubbling and wheezings can be heard in the chest as an asthmatic breathes because the air has to be sucked and blown through air tubes that are almost blocked.

asthma disease
asthma disease

Asthmatics have oversensitive cells in their air tubes. They are most open sensitive to house dust, feathers in pillows, and dandruff from animals, grass pollen, the germs left behind after cold and sore throats, and even chemical irritants in the air. The air tubes, or bronchi, leading from the windpipe into the lungs have circular muscle fibers embedded in their walls so that they can open and shut rather as lips do when one whistle. In an asthmatics attack, the skin that lines the air tubes swells and sticky mucus ooze from it. More seriously, the tubes close up tightly, like leg muscles in cramp. Some asthmatic attacks may last only a few minutes; others may continue for several days.

Asthmatic attacks usually begin in childhood, become less frequent over the years, and in about half the childhood cases disappear before adulthood.

The best way to help an asthmatic person is to stay calm when he or she suffers an attack. Sooner or later the tubes will open, and the sticky phlegm will be coughed up, and normal breathing will resume. Between attacks, most asthmatics look and feel quite well.

Eczema:

This is a common skin complaint, and it causes itching. In people who are nervous and easily upset, eczema may be brought on by worry and mental stress. This form of eczema is difficult to treat. Others may develop eczema through sensitivity to a particular substance in contact with the skin, or to a particular food. Substances that often bring on eczema are certain cosmetics, cheap dyes for clothes and hair, hard water, chemicals and detergents used in the home, dirt, and soap and scouring powders. This type of eczema can usually be treated once it has been established that substance is causing it. In children, eczema and asthma are often associated.

Eczema Symptoms
Eczema

 

Nettle rash:

Nettle rash is another name for a complaint called urticaria (known as hives in the United States). It is an allergy to a drug or to certain foods, such as shellfish, strawberries, or eggs. It often appears quickly after some redness of the skin, lasts for anything from a few minutes to hours or even days, and then just as suddenly disappears. Some relief can be obtained by bathing the rash with soda and warm water.

 

Nettle rash Symptoms
Nettle rash

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Animal Feeding and Breathing-About Animal(Part-1) http://www.prettysmile.xyz/animal-feeding/ http://www.prettysmile.xyz/animal-feeding/#respond Fri, 15 Sep 2017 20:59:56 +0000 http://www.prettysmile.xyz/?p=574 Animal Feeding and Breathing: The word animal refers to one of the two great kingdoms (groups) of living things; the other is the plant kingdom. Usually, it is easy to say by just looking whether or not something is an animal or not. But there are many kinds of living things that had to be …

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Animal Feeding and Breathing: The word animal refers to one of the two great kingdoms (groups) of living things; the other is the plant kingdom. Usually, it is easy to say by just looking whether or not something is an animal or not. But there are many kinds of living things that had to be investigated scientifically before it was possible to say quite definitely that they were animals.

An important difference between plants and animals lies in the way they feed. Plants build up foodstuffs from simple materials in the soil. But animals need more complicated foods that have been produced by plants and are contained within them. Animals take these in either by eating the plants themselves or by eating other animals that do, for instance, lions prey on antelope that live on grass. Other differences are that unlike plants most animals can move about, and animals have a nervous system that sends messages to and from the brain. Plants have no such system.

How Animals Feed

Animals eat in many different ways. The starfish pushes its stomach outside itself and wraps it round prey such as a mussel. Tapeworms, which live as parasites inside other animals, have no mouth; instead, they absorb food from the other animals through their bodies. Many water creatures feed on very tiny specks of food which they filter from the water in various clever ways. For instance, some caddis-fly larvae that live in streams build a tube to live in. They spin a small web across the top of the tube and when hungry make a stream of water go through the tube by waggling the body. Smaller creatures and algae are caught and eaten, and when the caddis-fly has had enough, it eats the web until the time comes to spin another.

Many of the smaller animals, and especially insects, live by sucking blood from other animals. To do this, they have mouths like hollow tubes with sharp points. Flies, mosquitoes, and ticks feed in this way. Similarly, many insects, such as the big cicadas or the much smaller greenflies, suck the sap from living plants. Spiders and scorpions also take only liquid food; their method is to kill their prey first, push in digestive juices and then suck out all the nourishment when it has liquified.

Animal Feeding System
Animal Feeding

The vertebrates (animals with backbones) have a more complicated way of digesting their food. Snakes eat only living animals and their eggs, and always swallow them whole. Very powerful juices in their stomachs can digest everything except horns, hoofs, and hairs. Even bones disappear completely. Birds eat food in pieces, and, since they have no teeth to chew with, most have a special part of the stomach called the gizzard, where the stones and grit they swallow are used for grinding up food.

Food eaten by mammals including humans follows a long and complicated route through the digestive system. First, it is chewed up and mixed with saliva in the mouth. Then it passes to the stomach, where more juices are added and where it is well mixed for several hours until it becomes liquid. Next, it passes on, a little at a time, to the small intestine, at which stage the liver and a gland called the pancreas add more digestive juices. As the food flows on, part of it passes through the outer wall of the intestine into the bloodstream. The rest flows on down the large intestine, which is wider and shorter than the previous section. Here much of the water is absorbed and the remainder, made up of fibers and another indigestible waste matter is got rid of through the anus in the form of solid material.

Higher animals need three main kinds of food: fats, such as butter; carbohydrates (sugar and starch); and proteins (milk, lean meat, and fish). They also need certain minerals, such as calcium to develop and maintain the bones, and phosphorus; And they must have vitamins, too. For these complicated chemicals are essential for good health. All of them are found in living plants except for vitamin D, which is made in the animals’ bodies by the action of sunlight.

Breathing and waste products:

Animals get warmth and strength by using up foodstuffs. Actually, they burn them inside their bodies and for this, they need oxygen from the air. Insects generally take air in and out through openings in their bodies. Fish have gills that absorb the oxygen dissolved in water. Amphibians (when adult), reptiles, birds, and mammals have lungs and get oxygen by true breathing.

All food consists mainly of carbon and hydrogen; and when it has been burnt a lot of carbon dioxide and water are left which have to be got rid of. They both escape as gas by the same route as the oxygen came in. That is why an unventilated room with a lot of people in it gets stuffy and the windows steamy.

When proteins have been burnt, they leave behind the complicated chemicals containing nitrogen.  These are got rid of by the kidneys, which are really filters. About 200 liters (50 gallons) of blood passes through the kidneys every day and filters out the substances that are not needed. These go down to the bladder and then pass with the unwanted water as urine. Birds and reptiles get rid of them in a more or less solid form, however.

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What is air? What is the main component of air? http://www.prettysmile.xyz/what-is-air/ http://www.prettysmile.xyz/what-is-air/#respond Sun, 21 May 2017 06:18:14 +0000 http://www.prettysmile.xyz/?p=537 About the years 350 B.C, the Greek philosopher Aristotle thought that all things were made of four elements -earth, air, fire, and water. And this was believed for nearly 2000 years. In 1774 the English scientist Joseph Priestley discovered the gas oxygen, and three years later the French scientist Antoine Lavoisier proved that air was …

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About the years 350 B.C, the Greek philosopher Aristotle thought that all things were made of four elements -earth, air, fire, and water. And this was believed for nearly 2000 years. In 1774 the English scientist Joseph Priestley discovered the gas oxygen, and three years later the French scientist Antoine Lavoisier proved that air was a mixture of gasses and that about one-fifth of it was oxygen. The other four-fifth, which was mostly nitrogen, was found to be of no use in burning or breathing.

Chemists at that time also knew that air contained a small amount of carbon dioxide and water vapor. Scientists have since discovered five other gasses, which are in the air in small amounts- argon, neon, helium, xenon and krypton. All have some practical use. Argon and neon are used in electric strip lighting, krypton in special bulbs for miners’ lamps and with xenon in electronic flash tubes for photography and in lasers. Helium is used to fill large balloons sent up into the higher atmosphere for weather-recording purposes. Dust and bacteria are also found in air, and this means that special ways of ventilation and purification are sometimes needed.

Man has added to the air various substances that do not occur naturally. Car exhausts and gasses such as carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide, and other chemical compounds. This occurs mostly near large town with factories.

Although nitrogen is not needed for burning or breathing, it is still very important. Certain bacteria can fix nitrogen, that is, combine it with other elements to form compounds that promote plant growth. Nitrogen is used is making fertilizers, explosives and various chemicals.

what is air?
what is air

Oxygen & carbon dioxide:

Oxygen from the air diffuses, or spreads, into the blood flowing through the lungs of an air-breathing animal and is carried to all the cells of the animal’s body. Living cells use oxygen to release the energy stored in food in a process called respiration. Carbon dioxide is a waste product of respiration and is carried in the blood back to the lungs. From there it separates from the blood and is breathed out into the air, along with a little water vapor.

The mixture of gasses making up the air consists of molecules that are continually in motion. They surround the Earth and are prevented from escaping from it by the force of gravity. The higher the air is above sea level, the thinner it is because the effects of gravity are not as great. The closer it is to the Earth’s surface, the greater the pressure, or downward force, it exerts. At sea level, the pressure of the air is about one kilogram per centimeter square (about 15lb/inch). At high altitude, the air is thinner and mountaineers find it difficult to breathe.

Oxygen is slightly soluble in water, and fish “breathe” dissolved oxygen through their gills. It is also used when substances decay. Oxygen is absorbed by germinating seeds and growing plants. Without oxygen in the air, there could be no combustion, or burning, of fuel in fires, furnaces or engines.

So much oxygen is used in combustion and respiration that one might expect the amount of oxygen in the air to become less and less. But this does not happen because during the day the green leaves of plants take CO2 from the air. And make starch and give back oxygen. However, more carbon dioxide is being produced than can be absorbed by the plants, and building up in the atmosphere increasing the temperature.

Winds and air currents keep the gasses in the air well mixed. In a confined space crowded with people, the amounts of the carbon dioxide water vapor increase. This excess of water vapor makes the air feel free very damp and unpleasant.

Air can be changed to a pale blue liquid by compressing it. And cooling it to a temperature of about-200°C (-328°F). Liquid air is manufactured in great quantities and used in many ways. When the temperature of the liquid air is allowed to rise slowly it is possible to obtain in their pure state each of the gasses present in the air. This method, which is called fractional distillation, is used to obtain pure oxygen, for industry and breathing apparatus, for instance. Liquid air is also a source of argon, helium, krypton or xenon. And it can be used for cooling other gasses to liquefy them.

 

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What is anemia? what are the main causes of anemia? http://www.prettysmile.xyz/what-is-anemia/ http://www.prettysmile.xyz/what-is-anemia/#respond Wed, 17 May 2017 18:50:46 +0000 http://www.prettysmile.xyz/?p=508 Anemia is a particular physical condition in which the amount of hemoglobin in the blood or the number of red blood cells in a person falls below the normal level. More specifically, it is a condition caused by the deficiency of iron in the blood. In fact, hemoglobin is a protein in the red cells …

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Anemia is a particular physical condition in which the amount of hemoglobin in the blood or the number of red blood cells in a person falls below the normal level. More specifically, it is a condition caused by the deficiency of iron in the blood. In fact, hemoglobin is a protein in the red cells that contains iron. It is carried in the red blood cells of the human blood and imparts the red color. Hemoglobin makes it possible for the blood to carry oxygen. The body’s tissue needs oxygen to function properly. The lack of the minimum amount of red blood cells or hemoglobin would result in a poor oxygen supply to the body and hence people suffering from anemia look pale and feel tired as they become oxygen-starved.

Symptoms of Anemia

In every healthy human being, hemoglobin maintains certain of concentration. The mean values of hemoglobin for male are 15gm per deciliter and for female 13.5gm per deciliter. Values which are less than 2.5 or 3 standard deviations below the mean value are indicative of anemia.  The mean values are greater for males than for the females and again greater in adults as compared to children.

 To detect anemia, the concentration of three things in the blood is measured. These are the hemoglobin, the red cell count, and hematocrit. If the values of these things are below the normal level, the person is said to be anemic.

Causes of Anemia:

This disease may have several causes. The major ones are:

  1. Defective blood formation
  2. Cell destruction and
  3. Extensive loss of blood.

Moreover, there are a number of physical disorders, any of which can cause different types of anemia. Some of the specific types of anemia are:

  1. Microcytic (red cells are smaller than normal size)
  2. Macrocytic(red cells are longer than normal size)
  3. Normocytic(red cells are of normal size) and
  4. Hypochromic anemia(cells contains very little hemoglobin)

Anemia resulting from sudden blood loss is generally normocytic in nature.

Anemia Symptoms

Red cells have an average lifespan of 120 days in the circulation. Each day about 45,000 red cells per microliter is removed in a healthy person. They are replaced with new cells from the bone marrow. Anemia occurs when this rate of removal of red cells from the circulation exceeds the replacement or when the production of red cells is impaired or the ineffective in delivering cells to the circulation. Anemia also occurs due to the lack of iron in the diet. Some kinds of anemia can be treated by eating iron-rich foods. Medicines are also available to supply iron required to maintain the desired level.

Anemia which results from the increased red blood cell destruction is known as hemolytic anemia. This may be caused by poisoning, a kind of malaria, poor diet, allergy or some hereditary condition.

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What is Acupuncture?-An Alternative Medicine http://www.prettysmile.xyz/what-is-acupuncture/ http://www.prettysmile.xyz/what-is-acupuncture/#respond Wed, 17 May 2017 18:34:57 +0000 http://www.prettysmile.xyz/?p=512 Acupuncture is an ancient form of medical treatment in which small and very thin needles, usually made of stainless steel, are inserted into specific points in the body in order to relieve pain or improve health. The treatment is believed to have been practiced in China as early as 4000 years ago and it is …

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Acupuncture is an ancient form of medical treatment in which small and very thin needles, usually made of stainless steel, are inserted into specific points in the body in order to relieve pain or improve health.

The treatment is believed to have been practiced in China as early as 4000 years ago and it is still used today. According to acupuncture experts of China, the human body was thought to consist of 14 meridians or channels of which 12 were bilateral and two were not, and it is through these meridians that vital energy flows. Along these meridians are situated 365 points where energy is concentrated. Now the number of these points has been increased to 800. The drawings for the exact positions of these points are available even today. With the help of these drawings, the needles are inserted at specific points for a particular disease. For example, if a patient has an eye problem, the needles will be inserted into his eye line. The needles do not go deep and the process is quite painless. A single treatment may last only 10 minutes.

 

 An Alternative Medicine:

In recent years, acupuncture has been accepted even in the west as a branch of alternative medicine. Acupuncture is extensively practiced in China, Japan, and the USA. It has proved to be an effective treatment for relieving pain. Some doctors even perform surgery with acupuncture as the only anesthetic. It has been used to treat malaria, stomach disorders, rheumatic pain and a host of other diseases.

acupuncture process
Acupuncture process

Till now the scientists have not been able to fully explain how acupuncture works. But some of them have suggested that the needles might be relieving the nerves affecting a disease. It has also been observed that inserting a needle at one point of the body sets up a specific reaction at another point. According to another view, illness is supposed to be the result of an imbalance of the body’s forces. This imbalance is corrected by acupuncture.

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Pneumonia: Causes and Symptoms of Pneumonia http://www.prettysmile.xyz/causes-pneumonia/ http://www.prettysmile.xyz/causes-pneumonia/#comments Wed, 17 May 2017 18:11:26 +0000 http://www.prettysmile.xyz/?p=476 Pneumonia is a disorder of one or both the lungs usually caused by micro-organisms such as pneumococcus and mycoplasma. It may also be caused by exposure to radiation, such as X-rays, or by breathing in chemical fumes or powders.  Its affliction causes irritation in the sacs of the lungs. At this stage, the body pours …

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Pneumonia is a disorder of one or both the lungs usually caused by micro-organisms such as pneumococcus and mycoplasma. It may also be caused by exposure to radiation, such as X-rays, or by breathing in chemical fumes or powders.  Its affliction causes irritation in the sacs of the lungs. At this stage, the body pours fluids and white blood cells into air sacs to fight the infection. Pneumonia may develop when a person is already ill, either very young or old or when the immune system is not very strong.

symptoms of pneumonia:

The symptoms of pneumonia include chills, fever, chest pain, cough, and difficulty in breathing. Frequency, the infected person coughs out rust-colored phlegm mucus that contains blood from the irritated lung tissues. The symptoms usually last from seven to ten days until the body’s defense mechanism begins to gain control over the disease.

Its remedy includes administering antibiotics that make the patient feel better at a faster pace. Antibiotics have played a major role in reducing the number of deaths due to pneumonia.

Causes of Pneumonia:

Pneumonia caused by the bacterium pneumococcus is clinically very severe. The pneumococcus is present in the bodies of my healthy persons but is normally kept under control. If the body becomes weak because of sickness, cold, surgery or exhaustion, the pneumococci can quickly upset the body’s defense and cause pneumonia.

Causes of Pneumonia
Causes of Pneumonia

Mycoplasmal pneumonia caused by mycoplasma pneumoniae usually afflicts younger people in the age group of 15-20 years. Once afflicted, the body can produce immunity to the organism. The mycoplasma pneumoniae grow on the mucous membrane that lines most of the internal lung structures. The bacteria can produce an oxidizing agent that might be responsible for some cell damage. The orgasm inflames the bronchi and alveoli (air sacs).

Pneumonia is called after the internal body organs it affects. Lobar pneumonia affects one or more lobes of the lung. Lobar and  Double pneumonia in both lungs. Bronchopneumonia affects the bronchi and bronchioles, the tubes leading to the lungs.

It is a serious disease that should be treated by a doctor. The patient should get plenty of rest, fluids, and fresh air. He should avoid crowds and contact with other people. Penicillin’s are the preferred drugs for the treatment of it.

 

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How Does A Turbine Work?-Educational Site http://www.prettysmile.xyz/turbine-work/ http://www.prettysmile.xyz/turbine-work/#comments Wed, 17 May 2017 05:52:52 +0000 http://www.prettysmile.xyz/?p=498 A turbine is a machine used to convert energy generated by moving liquid, gas or air into work. For example, the energy produced by fast flowing water is made to spin a rotating shaft by pushing on the angled blades set around a wheel mounted on the shaft, and this action produces the required work. …

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A turbine is a machine used to convert energy generated by moving liquid, gas or air into work. For example, the energy produced by fast flowing water is made to spin a rotating shaft by pushing on the angled blades set around a wheel mounted on the shaft, and this action produces the required work. The generated work helps to drive machines like the propeller of a ship or an airplane or electric generators to produce electricity. The gas or liquid used in a turbine is known as the working medium. The working can be water, steam, gas or air. Do you know “How Does A Turbine Work?”

water turbine:

The water turbines use water from a waterfall or a dam to drive the turbine. There are two different methods to make the turbine wheels rotate. A water jet may be directed onto the blades. This is called a reaction turbine. In the second method, the turbine wheels are submerged in the following water. These turbines are used at hydroelectric power stations.

water turbine

 

steam turbine:

For steam turbines to operate, first the steam must be produced by heating water by boilers. The steam enters the turbine at a high pressure. Inside the turbine, the pressure drops and the steam expands. This expansion drives the wheels around. Steam turbines have a series of wheels, mounted on the same shaft. This is because the steam expands gradually as moves through the turbines.

steam-turbine

 

Gas turbine:

Gas turbines are turned by fast-moving jets of gas. These gasses are produced by burning liquid fuels or natural gasses. Air is drawn into the front of the turbine and passed through a compressor. The compressed air is mixed with the fuel and the mixture is ignited in the combustion chamber. This produces, hot, expanding gasses, which drive the turbine wheels. Gas turbines are used to turn the propellers of aircraft and also to propel ships.

gas-turbine

Gas turbines are used for jet engines. The hot gasses are sent out at a high speed from the back of the engine. This produces a large amount of thrust that forces the engine to move forward. In jet engines, the purpose of the turbines is to drive the compressor. Turbines are also used in nuclear power stations.

 

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Different Types Of Mental Illness and Symptoms http://www.prettysmile.xyz/different-mental-illness/ http://www.prettysmile.xyz/different-mental-illness/#respond Tue, 16 May 2017 12:02:43 +0000 http://www.prettysmile.xyz/?p=493 A mental illness means the sickness of the mind in some or other form that affects the normal functioning of the patient in his day-to-day life. Recent findings have shown that there are definite biochemical aberrations in the brain which called mental illness. Hence it needs special treatment which includes detection, treatment, and rehabilitation.   …

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A mental illness means the sickness of the mind in some or other form that affects the normal functioning of the patient in his day-to-day life. Recent findings have shown that there are definite biochemical aberrations in the brain which called mental illness. Hence it needs special treatment which includes detection, treatment, and rehabilitation.

Different Types Of Mental Illness

 

Mental Illness and Symptoms:

Mental illness is shown two types: organic and functional. Organic mental illness is caused by any damage to the brain. The cause can be high fever, an accident or a change in a number of hormones the body produces.

There are many types of organic mental illness. Epilepsy is a disease caused by a damaged brain, but it can occur even among perfectly normal people. In the case of brain hemorrhage and thrombosis, the brain’s blood supply is damaged. Cerebral palsy and spastic paralysis are caused by some brain-damaged in childhood. Multiple sclerosis involves damage to the brain tissues. Parkinson’s disease is caused by a disorder of the brain chemistry. Other organic mental disorders are caused by injury to the brain: amnesia is the loss of memory; aphasia is a serious disorder of through and communication.

But most the mental illness is functional disorders. In a functional disorder, a person’s mind is ill without any apparent damage to the brain. Depending upon the symptoms, these disorders have been broadly divided into three groups. These are:

i. minor mental illnesses (neurosis, anxiety reaction etc.)

ii. major mental illness (psychosis, schizophrenia, mania) and

iii. mental depression (affection disorder).

Neurosis:

A neurosis is a mild form of emotional disorder which affects in varying degrees. They include anxiety states, hysterical reactions and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The anxiety neurosis may lead to absent-mindedness, some abnormal fear like dread of death or of certain places or people. This fear in some cases is called a phobia. And many seriously disturb a person’s life. Some of its common examples are hydrophobia (the fear of water) and acrophobia (the fear of heights). Hysteria has physical symptoms such as paralysis, without an apparent physical cause. The people with obsessive-compulsive neurosis have a compulsive urge to perform certain acts. They may spend much of their time performing the same act over and over again. Character neuroses include passiveness, aggressiveness, moodiness, and elation.

 

Psychosis:

Psychosis is considered as a major mental illness and is mainly of two types: manic-depressive psychosis and schizophrenic psychosis. In manic-depressive psychosis, the patient may feel excited, elated, miserable, gloomy or without hope. Manic-depressive psychosis can be cured or relieved with drugs. This suggests that certain chemical changes in the brain may be a major cause of this illness. Depressive may also be a psychological reaction to a shock such as the death of a close friend.

 

 Schizophrenia:

In schizophrenia, a person’s whole mind and personality become disrupted. Schizophrenia means ‘slitting of mind’. The speech and behavior of the sufferer show irrational patterns- the patient’s behavior may become violent and uncontrollable and he may get an illusory perception of reality. In paranoia, this is a form of schizophrenia, the patient suspects and mistrusts the people around him and feels that others are hostile to him. For that, he reacts accordingly.

Mania is the extreme liking for something which takes an uncontrollable form. For example, a dipsomaniac is a person who is excessively addicted to liquor; a kleptomaniac is a person who can hardly resist the temptation of stealing etc.

Mental depression results from factors like excessive stress, some mishappenings like loss of a job or any chronic illness causing concern etc. It becomes an illness when the depression is persistent. And at this condition needs treatment.

The psychiatrists may differ in their treatment of mental illness. Therapies which are used to treat mental illnesses are called psychotherapy, group, drug therapy and electroconvulsive therapy.

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